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風和日暖──台灣外省人與國家認同的轉變
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 作者:高格孚
 定價:200元
 開本:25開
 頁數:190
 ISBN:9570329645
 出版日期:2004年元月10日

 作者是一位曾經在台灣住過五年以上的法國人,他也以台灣的外省人國家認同的轉變作為研究的主題,撰寫他在巴黎政治研究所的博士論文。這本書正是他厚達821頁的法文博士論文的精華部份中文摘要與改寫。

 本書有幾項極為突出的特色與優點:

 1.本書對於「外省人」的歷史面貌有清晰的刻畫。討論外省人作為一個新的族群類屬在台灣社會中形成的歷史過程,以及台灣的研究者、藝文界(電影、小說),如何由不同的角度呈現外省人的面貌。

 2.本書明確的指出外省人在國家認同上困境,主要是源自於1980年代末期,台灣開始經歷本土化的轉折,對於外省人國家認同的衝擊。

 3.對於外省人認同困境上的兩難的狀況,本書也提供了相當深入的描述與分析。透過一份自行設計、訪談的問卷調查表的資料分析,本書作者清楚的呈現出。

台灣「外省人」後解嚴時代的國家認同/高格孚

 ●作者介紹

 高格孚 Stéphane Corcuff

 生於西元一九七一年,二○○○年於法國巴黎政治學院(Sciences Po),取得政治學博士學位。現職於Université de la Rochelle教授「政治哲學與憲法」以及「臺灣政治」,在其母校教授「認同理論與臺海兩岸地緣政治」。

 研究專長:認同政治、臺海關係。

 曾任Mutations asiatiques期刊總編、法國現代中國研究中心台北分部研究員以及法國在台協會新聞組長。

 二○○二年,在美編輯並出版。Memories of the Future. National Identity Issues and the Search for a New Taiwan以及再國際上發表多篇關於臺灣的國家認同議題之相關論文。

 ●評介

風和日暖,盆栽生根
──讀過高格孚的書
/深藍

 經過好友燕子的介紹,看到了一本很感興趣的書,書的內容由副標題可以看出「台灣外省人與國家認同的轉變」,而更有趣的是,作者是一個法國人,所以,較能夠在較超然的立場上來姐讀台灣現有的族群現象。高格孚先生住台灣多年,尤其是和各界界的交往,對台灣的社會和政治觀察也有獨到的看法。

 曾對台灣的外省族群做過一些看法的發表,但總覺得自己有一些情況不甚了解,尤其是外省盆栽族群的國家認同是怎樣?台灣的生活方式和這些人所表現出來的想法要怎樣描述,尤其是盆栽族群對政治的邏輯為何如此矛盾,甚至以截然不同的標準來看待盆栽和非盆栽出身的政客,這些在在讓我百思不解。直到看到這本書,才解開一些疑問。

 首先,高格孚先生開始探討外省人逃難到台灣後的行為和思想分析。主要的看法是由於外省族群是逃難到台灣,際遇也有所不同,因此,在台灣造成截然不同的反應。

 他以白先勇的小說「台北人」為例。「無論在大陸時曾應是豪華顯赫的將士名門,或是在十里洋場中受眾人仰慕的大牌歌星,都仍活在過去的歲月中。」(41頁)另外一種是「那些來到台灣後,在台北戰戰兢兢努力討生活的市井小民,則不像其他那兩類人,有這份閒情逸致去緬懷昔日,他們只想好好地在台灣存活下去。」(41頁)。

 對於小說中這些情況,高格孚先生認為,「我們亦在書中領會到當時的外省人是如何的逃避現實,只和自己圈內人交往,活在回憶中,而不願和台灣本土有任何進一步的交流。」(42頁),因此,我們可以知道眷村內族群為何和台灣的隔絕如此之深。

 如果說1973年白先勇的書所寫的是第一代中國移民,第二代的中國移民代表,高格孚先生就以龍應台為例,也點出龍應台的矛盾所在。一方面龍應台抨擊李登輝總統和他的身為台灣的悲哀言論,另外又說「有什麼樣的人民就有什麼樣的總統」,但問題是她卻沒說自己是否是她所說的人民?

 所以,外省人國家意識區分為政治和非政治。在非政治上外省人已經對台灣認同,尤其台灣和中國在冷戰時期長期對中國的隔絕,已經發展出一套和現在中國截然不同的生活方式。而他們的生活方式也已經台灣化,只是在日常生活中並沒有強調這一點。但心態上而後延伸到政治上面,也就造成台灣政治上的怪異現象。

 這樣的怪異現象,高格孚先生也提出看法,個人認為很貼切。書中指出:

 「....如果感覺到生活在台灣社會中當中的不自在,那他們有什麼選擇呢?我想用一個很基礎的政治分析架構來闡述:exit(出走),voice(表達;抗議),loyalty(忠誠;支持)。Exit就是移民到第三國或者回到大陸去,前者是拒絕面對而遠走他鄉,後者則是以一種最尖銳的方式刪除他們的多元國家認同行程中的台灣部分。Voice則是最大宗的一群,Voice則是留在台灣反對台灣本土化政策,Loyalty則是表示自己接受台灣本土化的歷史性本質。Exit跟loyalty這兩批人士佔少數的,voice則是最大宗一群,voice這群人當中,包括了直接表達不滿的人以及沉默承受痛苦的人,前者中除了除有台灣人所謂的統派外省籍政治人物外,也有以各種方式,(參予抗議活動)表達其對於台灣當前路線不滿的人,而後者,也就是前述所謂沉默忍受痛苦的人,則是一半的外省籍人民。」(146頁)

 這一段可以解釋現階段台灣外省盆栽族群的政治現象。而且高格孚先在書中所指出的,「我認為voice的椰果除非達到目的,否則等於是引起挫折的深化。而loyalty則是面對事實並關切其正向的那一面。」(146頁)就個人的觀察,盆栽族群們所面對的情況如同坐困危城,一籌莫展。

 隨著本土化政治影響越來越大,使得外來的外省族群雖然無法改變現狀,只好在各個選舉中,把票投給自己喜歡的候選人,雖然這些政治人物的品德能力操守等條件不如本土政治人物,但由於台灣的現況發展的方向是這些中國盆栽族群所不喜歡的,因此,用選票表達並期待自己選出的可以寄望的政治人物,看有沒有機會能把台灣政治轉向自己喜歡的方向。

 只是舊政權在民主政治的影響力江河日下,中國盆栽族群只能看著自己的優勢逐漸消失,逐步退守。

 例如1994年時,以反本土的中國新黨,曾撼動台北市長選舉,號稱要跨過濁水溪甚至高屏溪。但由於無法再擴大支持面和本土結合的結果,再加上選民的喜好改變,現在已經泡沫化,淪為台北地方黨,在幾次大選中僅剩下幾席的台北市議員。而外來政黨的國民黨在立法院也落到失去第一大黨的寶座。這些演變的原因,可以由書上得到印證。

 當然,這本書命名為「風和日暖」是因為作者認為台灣的外省族群在台灣半個世紀的生活,已經和台灣建立起不同於現今中國的生活方式,而完全認同於台灣。只是在國家認同卻有著邏輯錯亂的思考。就連自己是否是中國人,及中國人的定義如何也說不清楚。原先少數人支配的政治文化資源也因為時代和市場的改變,由主流變成非主流,而缺乏適應能力,無法跟著時代轉變的,而開始自怨自艾,甚至怪罪別人,則是台灣現在和將來的隱憂。






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